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jifenz   发表于 2018-7-20 15:42:46 |栏目:仪器资料 |分类:直读光谱
  • 资料类型 :仪器样本 
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  • 仪器型号:
ARL-光电倍增管手册
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................ 1
1.1 Overview of This Manual ..................................................................... 2
1.2 Photometric Units ................................................................................ 4
1.2.1 Spectral regions and units ...................................................... 4
1.2.2 Units of light intensity ............................................................. 5
1.3 History ............................................................................................... 10
1.3.1 History of photocathodes ...................................................... 10
1.3.2 History of photomultiplier tubes ............................................ 10
References in Chapter 1 ............................................................................... 12
CHAPTER 2 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF
PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES ...................................... 13
2.1 Photoelectron Emission .................................................................... 14
2.2 Electron Trajectory ............................................................................ 16
2.3 Electron Multiplier (Dynode Section) ................................................. 17
2.4 Anode ................................................................................................ 18
References in Chapter 2 ............................................................................... 19
CHAPTER 3 BASIC OPERATING METHODS
OF PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES ................................ 21
3.1 Using Photomultiplier Tubes ............................................................. 22
3.1.1 How to make the proper selection ........................................ 22
3.1.2 Peripheral devices ................................................................ 23
High-voltage power supply ......................................................................... 23
Voltage-divider circuit ................................................................................. 24
Housing ...................................................................................................... 26
Integral power supply module .................................................................... 27
3.1.3 Operating methods (connection circuits) .............................. 28
PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES ...................................... 29
4.1 Basic Characteristics of Photocathodes ............................................ 30
4.1.1 Photocathode materials........................................................ 30
(1) Cs-I ...................................................................................................... 30
(2) Cs-Te ................................................................................................... 30
(3) Sb-Cs ................................................................................................... 30
(4) Bialkali (Sb-Rb-Cs, Sb-K-Cs) .............................................................. 30
(5) High temperature, low noise bialkali (Sb-Na-K) ................................... 31
(6) Multialkali (Sb-Na-K-Cs) ...................................................................... 31
(7) Ag-O-Cs ............................................................................................... 31
(8) GaAsP (Cs) .......................................................................................... 31
(9) GaAs (Cs) ............................................................................................ 31
(10) InGaAs (Cs) ......................................................................................... 31
(11) InP/InGaAsP(Cs), InP/InGaAs(Cs) ...................................................... 31
Transmission mode photocathodes ........................................................... 34
Reflection mode photocathodes ................................................................ 35
4.1.2 Window materials ................................................................. 36
(1) MgF2 crystal ......................................................................................... 36
(2) Sapphire .............................................................................................. 36
(3) Synthetic silica ..................................................................................... 36
(4) UV glass (UV-transmitting glass) ......................................................... 36
(5) Borosilicate glass ................................................................................. 36
4.1.3 Spectral response characteristics ........................................ 37
(1) Radiant sensitivity ................................................................................ 37
(2) Quantum efficiency .............................................................................. 37
(3) Measurement and calculation of spectral response characteristics .... 37
(4) Spectral response range (short and long wavelength limits) ..................... 38
4.1.4 Luminous sensitivity ............................................................. 38
(1) Cathode luminous sensitivity ............................................................... 39
(2) Anode luminous sensitivity .................................................................. 40
(3) Blue sensitivity index and red-to-white ratio ........................................ 41
4.1.5 Luminous sensitivity and spectral response ......................... 42
4.2 Basic Characteristics of Dynodes ..................................................... 43
4.2.1 Dynode types and features .................................................. 43
(1) Circular-cage type ............................................................................... 44
(2) Box-and-grid type ................................................................................ 44
(3) Linear-focused type ............................................................................. 44
(4) Venetian blind type .............................................................................. 44
(5) Mesh type ............................................................................................ 44
(6) MCP (Microchannel plate) ................................................................... 44
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(7) Metal channel dynode ......................................................................... 44
(8) Electron bombardment type ................................................................ 44
4.2.2 Collection efficiency and gain (current amplification) ........... 45
(1) Collection efficiency ............................................................................. 45
(2) Gain (current amplification) ................................................................. 46
4.3 Characteristics of Photomultiplier Tubes ........................................... 48
4.3.1 Time characteristics.............................................................. 48
(1) Rise time, fall time and electron transit time ........................................ 49
(2) TTS (transit time spread) ..................................................................... 50
(3) CTTD (cathode transit time difference) ................................................ 52
(4) CRT (coincident resolving time) ........................................................... 53
4.3.2 Linearity ................................................................................ 54
(1) Cathode linearity .................................................................................. 54
(2) Anode linearity ..................................................................................... 54
(3) Linearity measurement ........................................................................ 56
4.3.3 Uniformity ............................................................................. 59
(1) Spatial uniformity ................................................................................. 60
(2) Angular response ................................................................................ 62
4.3.4 Stability ................................................................................. 63
(1) Drift (time stability) and life characteristics .......................................... 63
(2) Aging and warm-up ............................................................................. 64
4.3.5 Hysteresis ............................................................................. 65
(1) Light hysteresis .................................................................................... 65
(2) Voltage hysteresis ............................................................................... 66
(3) Reducing the hysteresis ...................................................................... 67
4.3.6 Dark current .......................................................................... 67
(1) Causes of dark current ........................................................................ 67
(2) Expression of dark current ................................................................... 71
4.3.7 Signal-to-noise ratio of photomultiplier tubes ....................... 73
4.3.8 Afterpulsing .......................................................................... 77
Types of afterpulses ................................................................................... 77
4.3.9 Polarized-light dependence .................................................. 78
References in Chapter 4 ............................................................................... 81
CHAPTER 5 HOW TO USE PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES
AND PERIPHERAL CIRCUITS ................................... 83
5.1 Voltage-Divider Circuits ..................................................................... 84
5.1.1 Basic operation of voltage-divider circuits ............................ 84
5.1.2 Anode grounding and cathode grounding ............................ 85
5.1.3 Voltage-divider current and output linearity .......................... 86
(1) DC-operation output linearity and its countermeasures ...................... 86
(2) Pulse-operation output linearity and its countermeasures ................... 88
5.1.4 Voltage distribution in voltage-divider circuits ....................... 90
(1) Voltage distribution in the anode and latter stages .............................. 90
(2) Voltage distribution for the cathode and earlier stages ........................ 92
5.1.5 Countermeasures for fast response circuits ......................... 93
5.1.6 Practical fast response voltage-divider circuit ...................... 94
5.1.7 High output linearity voltage-divider circuit (1) ..................... 94
5.1.8 High output linearity voltage-divider circuit (2) ..................... 96
5.1.9 Gating circuit ........................................................................ 97
5.1.10 Anode sensitivity adjustment circuits .................................... 98
5.1.11 Precautions when fabricating a voltage-divider circuit ....... 100
(1) Selecting the parts used for a voltage-divider circuit ......................... 100
(2) Precautions for mounting components .............................................. 101
5.2 Selecting a High-Voltage Power Supply .......................................... 102
5.3 Connection to an External Circuit .................................................... 102
5.3.1 Observing an output signal ................................................. 102
5.3.2 Influence of a coupling capacitor ........................................ 104
5.3.3 Current-to-voltage conversion for photomultiplier tube output .. 105
(1) Current-to-voltage conversion using load resistance ........................ 105
(2) Current-to-voltage conversion using an operational amplifier ........... 107
(3) Charge-sensitive amplifier using an operational amplifier ................. 109
5.3.4 Output circuit for a fast response photomultiplier tube ....... 111
5.4 Housing ........................................................................................... 113
5.4.1 Light shield ......................................................................... 113
5.4.2 Electrostatic shield ............................................................. 113
5.4.3 Magnetic shield .................................................................. 113
(1) Shielding factor of magnetic shield case and orientation of magnetic field .... 114
(2) Saturation characteristics .................................................................. 116
(3) Frequency characteristics .................................................................. 118
(4) Edge effect ..........................................................................................119
(5) Photomultiplier tube magnetic characteristics and shielding effect ....119
(6) Handling the magnetic shield case .................................................... 120
5.5 Cooling ............................................................................................ 122
References in Chapter 5 ............................................................................. 123
CHAPTER 6 PHOTON COUNTING ................................................ 125
6.1 Analog and Digital (Photon Counting) Modes .................... 126
6.2 Principle of Photon Counting .............................................. 127
6.3 Operating Method and Characteristics of Photon Counting .... 129
(1) Circuit configuration ........................................................................... 129
(2) Basic characteristics of photon counting ........................................... 129
References in Chapter 6 ............................................................................. 134
CHAPTER 7 SCINTILLATION COUNTING .................................... 135
7.1 Scintillators and Photomultiplier Tubes ........................................... 136
7.2 Characteristics ................................................................................ 139
(1) Energy resolution ............................................................................... 139
(2) Relative pulse height ......................................................................... 142
(3) Linearity ............................................................................................. 142
(4) Uniformity .......................................................................................... 144
(5) Stability .............................................................................................. 145
(6) Noise ................................................................................................. 146
(7) Plateau characteristic ........................................................................ 148
References in Chapter 7 ............................................................................. 151
CHAPTER 8 PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE MODULES.................... 153
8.1 What Are Photomultiplier Tube Modules? ....................................... 154
8.2 Characteristics of Power Supply Circuits ........................................ 154
(1) Power supply circuits ......................................................................... 154
(2) Ripple noise ....................................................................................... 156
(3) Settling time ....................................................................................... 156
8.3 Current Output Type and Voltage Output Type ............................... 157
(1) Connection method ........................................................................... 157
(2) Gain adjustment ................................................................................ 157
(3) Current output type module ............................................................... 158
(4) Voltage output type module ............................................................... 158
8.4 Photon Counting Head .................................................................... 159
(1) Output characteristics ........................................................................ 159
(2) Counting sensitivity ............................................................................ 159
(3) Count linearity .................................................................................... 160
(4) Improving the count linearity .............................................................. 160
(5) Temperature characteristics .............................................................. 161
(6) Photon counting ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) ........ 162
8.5 Gate Function .................................................................................. 163
(1) Gate noise ......................................................................................... 163
(2) Extinction ratio ................................................................................... 164
8.6 Built-in CPU and IF Type ................................................................. 165
(1) Photon counting type ......................................................................... 165
(2) Charge amplifier and AD converter type ............................................ 166
References in Chapter 8 ............................................................................. 166
CHAPTER 9 POSITION SENSITIVE
PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES .................................... 167
9.1 Multianode Photomultiplier Tubes ................................................... 169
9.1.1 Metal channel dynode type multianode photomultiplier tubes ... 169
(1) Structure ............................................................................................ 169
(2) Characteristics ................................................................................... 170
9.1.2 Multianode MCP-PMT ........................................................ 176
9.1.3 Flat panel type multianode photomultiplier tubes ............... 176
(1) Characteristics ................................................................................... 176
9.2 Center-of-Gravity Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes ............ 178
9.2.1 Metal channel dynode type multianode photomultiplier tubes
(cross-plate anodes) .......................................................... 178
(1) Structure ............................................................................................ 178
(2) Characteristics ................................................................................... 179
9.2.2 Grid type dynode photomultiplier tubes (Cross-wire anodes) ...... 182
(1) Structure ............................................................................................ 182
(2) Characteristics ................................................................................... 182
CHAPTER 10 MCP-PMT................................................................... 187
10.1 Structure .......................................................................................... 188
10.1.1 Structure of MCPs .............................................................. 188
10.1.2 Structure of MCP-PMTs...................................................... 189
10.1.3 Voltage-divider circuit and housing structure ...................... 190
10.2 Basic Characteristics of MCP-PMTs ............................................... 191
10.2.1 Gain characteristics ............................................................ 191
10.2.2 Time characteristics............................................................ 192
(1) Rise/fall times .................................................................................... 192
(2) Transit time ........................................................................................ 192
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(3) TTS (transit time spread) ................................................................... 192
(4) Cathode transit time difference .......................................................... 194
(5) Time characteristics of various products ........................................... 194
10.2.3 Temperature characteristics and cooling ............................ 195
10.2.4 Saturation characteristics ................................................... 196
(1) Dead time .......................................................................................... 196
(2) Saturation in DC operation ................................................................ 197
(3) Pulse gain saturation characteristics (pulse linearity) ........................ 198
(4) Saturation gain characteristics in photon counting mode .................. 200
(5) Count rate linearity in photon counting .............................................. 200
10.2.5 Magnetic characteristics ..................................................... 201
10.3 Gated MCP-PMTs ........................................................................... 203
10.4 Multianode MCP-PMTs ................................................................... 205
References in Chapter 10 ........................................................................... 208
CHAPTER 11 HPD (Hybrid Photo-Detector) .................................. 209
11.1 Operating Principle of HPDs ........................................................... 210
11.2 Comparison with Photomultiplier Tubes .......................................... 212
11.3 Various Characteristics of HPDs ..................................................... 213
11.3.1 Multi-photoelectron resolution ............................................ 213
11.3.2 Gain characteristics and electron bombardment gain uniformity . 213
11.3.3 Time response characteristics ............................................ 215
11.3.4 Uniformity ........................................................................... 216
11.3.5 Light hysteresis characteristics .......................................... 216
11.3.6 Drift characteristics (short-term stability) ............................ 217
11.3.7 Magnetic characteristics ..................................................... 217
11.3.8 Temperature characteristics ............................................... 218
11.4 Connection Examples (R7110U Series) .......................................... 219
11.4.1 When handling DC signal (including connection to
transimpedance amp)......................................................... 219
11.4.2 When handling pulse signal (via connection to charge amp) ............. 220
References in Chapter 11 ........................................................................... 220
CHAPTER 12 ELECTRON MULTIPLIER TUBES
AND ION DETECTORS ............................................. 221
12.1 Structure .......................................................................................... 222
12.2 Characteristics ................................................................................ 223
12.2.1 Sensitivity to soft X-rays, VUV, electrons and ions ............. 223
12.2.2 Gain .................................................................................... 227
12.2.3 Dark current and noise ....................................................... 227
12.2.4 Linearity .............................................................................. 230
12.2.5 Life characteristics .............................................................. 231
References in Chapter 12 ........................................................................... 231
CHAPTER 13 ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTANCE
AND RELIABILITY .................................................... 233
13.1 Effects of Ambient Temperature ...................................................... 234
13.1.1 Temperature characteristics ............................................... 234
(1) Sensitivity .......................................................................................... 234
(2) Dark current ....................................................................................... 235
13.1.2 High temperature photomultiplier tubes ............................. 236
13.1.3 Storage temperature and cooling precautions ................... 239
13.2 Effects of Humidity .......................................................................... 239
13.2.1 Operating humidity ............................................................. 239
13.2.2 Storage humidity ................................................................ 239
13.3 Effects of External Magnetic Fields ................................................. 240
13.3.1 Magnetic characteristics ..................................................... 240
13.3.2 Photomultiplier tubes for use in highly magnetic fields ....... 241
13.3.3 Magnetization ..................................................................... 242
13.3.4 Photomultiplier tubes made of nonmagnetic materials....... 242
13.4 Vibration and Shock ........................................................................ 243
13.4.1 Resistance to vibration and shock during non-operation ... 243
13.4.2 Resistance to vibration and shock during operation (resonance) ... 243
13.4.3 Testing methods and conditions ......................................... 245
13.4.4 Ruggedized photomultiplier tubes ...................................... 247
13.5 Effects of Helium Gas ..................................................................... 248
13.6 Effects of Radiation ......................................................................... 249
13.6.1 Deterioration of window transmittance ............................... 249
13.6.2 Glass scintillation ................................................................ 253
13.7 Effects of Atmosphere ..................................................................... 254
13.8 Effects of External Electric Potential ............................................... 255
13.8.1 Experiment ......................................................................... 255
13.8.2 Taking corrective action ...................................................... 257
13.9 Reliability ......................................................................................... 258
13.9.1 Stability over time (life characteristic) ................................. 258
13.9.2 Current stress and stability ................................................. 259
13.9.3 Reliability ............................................................................ 261
(1) Failure mode ...................................................................................... 261
(2) Failure rate ........................................................................................ 261
(3) Mean life ............................................................................................ 261
(4) Reliability ........................................................................................... 262
13.9.4 Reliability tests and criteria used by Hamamatsu Photonics . 263
References in Chapter 13 ........................................................................... 264
CHAPTER 14 APPLICATIONS ......................................................... 265
14.1 Spectrophotometry .......................................................................... 266
14.1.1 Overview ............................................................................ 266
14.1.2 Specific applications ........................................................... 267
(1) UV, visible and infrared spectrophotometers ..................................... 267
(2) Atomic absorption spectrophotometers ............................................. 268
(3) Atomic emission spectrophotometers ................................................ 268
(4) Fluorospectrophotometers ................................................................. 269
14.2 Medical Equipment .......................................................................... 270
14.2.1 PET (Positron Emission Tomography)................................ 270
14.2.2 Gamma cameras ................................................................ 273
14.2.3 Planar imaging device ........................................................ 274
14.2.4 X-ray image diagnostic equipment ..................................... 275
(1) X-ray phototimer ................................................................................ 275
(2) Computed radiography (CR) ............................................................. 276
14.2.5 In-vitro assay ...................................................................... 277
(1) RIA (Radioimmunoassay) method ..................................................... 279
(2) Luminescent/fluorescent immunoassay ............................................ 280
(3) Chemiluminescent immunoassay ...................................................... 281
14.3 Biotechnology .................................................................................. 282
14.3.1 Overview ............................................................................ 282
14.3.2 Application examples ......................................................... 282
(1) Flow cytometers ................................................................................ 282
(2) Confocal laser microscopes .............................................................. 283
(3) DNA microarray scanners .................................................................. 283
(4) DNA sequencers ................................................................................ 284
14.4 High-Energy Physics Experiments .................................................. 285
14.4.1 Overview ............................................................................ 285
14.4.2 Collision experiments ......................................................... 285
(1) Hodoscopes ....................................................................................... 286
(2) TOF counters ..................................................................................... 286
(3) Calorimeters ...................................................................................... 287
(4) Cherenkov counters .......................................................................... 287
(5) Proton decay, neutrino observation experiments ............................... 288
14.5 Oil Well Logging .............................................................................. 290
14.6 Environmental Measurement .......................................................... 291
14.6.1 Overview ............................................................................ 291
14.6.2 Application examples ......................................................... 291
(1) Dust counters .................................................................................... 291
(2) Laser radar (LIDAR) .......................................................................... 291
(3) NOx analyzers ................................................................................... 292
(4) SOx analyzers ................................................................................... 293
14.7 Radiation Monitors .......................................................................... 294
14.7.1 Overview ............................................................................ 294
14.7.2 Application examples ......................................................... 294
(1) Handheld radiation monitor (pager) ................................................... 294
(2) Door monitors .................................................................................... 295
14.8 Industrial Measurement ................................................................... 296
14.8.1 Overview ............................................................................ 296
14.8.2 Application examples ......................................................... 296
(1) Thickness gauges .............................................................................. 296
(2) Laser scanners .................................................................................. 297
14.9 Aerospace Applications ................................................................... 298
14.9.1 Overview ............................................................................ 298
14.9.2 Application examples ......................................................... 298
(1) X-ray astronomy ............................................................................... 298
(2) Ozone measurement (solar backscatter radiometer) ........................ 300
14.10 Mass Spectrometry/Solid Surface Analysis ..................................... 301
14.10.1 Mass spectrometers ......................................................... 301
14.10.2 Solid surface analyzers .................................................... 302
References in Chapter 14 ........................................................................... 304
Index .................................................................................................. 305


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wsjy

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wsjy   发表于 2018-7-22 19:19:57 |栏目:仪器资料
这个資源一般般,不過我喜歡

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ydg133

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ydg133   发表于 2018-7-31 03:37:45 |栏目:仪器资料
珍惜生命,果断回帖;酌一杯清茶,品一起下吧资源

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min_ster

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min_ster   发表于 2018-8-6 17:00:02 |栏目:仪器资料
珍惜生命,果断回帖;酌一杯清茶,品一起下吧资源

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superdx

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superdx   发表于 2018-8-12 11:42:04 |栏目:仪器资料
啥也不说了,感谢一起下吧和楼主的分享哇!

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5151061   发表于 2018-8-19 01:49:03 |栏目:仪器资料
这个資源一般般,不過我喜歡

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cs_cec

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cs_cec   发表于 2018-8-30 12:48:58 |栏目:仪器资料
确实是难得好帖啊,讓我涕流滿面,頂頂一起下吧先

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yzzeng

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yzzeng   发表于 2018-9-11 09:09:14 |栏目:仪器资料
我帶著醬油瓶路過一起下吧的,還是忍不住小手一抖!

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derstand

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derstand   发表于 2018-9-19 16:22:10 |栏目:仪器资料
确实是难得好帖啊,讓我涕流滿面,頂頂一起下吧先

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affau

氦级

affau   发表于 2018-9-27 22:01:31 |栏目:仪器资料
我帶著醬油瓶路過一起下吧的,還是忍不住小手一抖!

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